Site-level predictors of children's school and social competence in the Chicago Child-Parent Centers

Melissa A. Clements, Arthur J Reynolds, Edmond Hickey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


We examined the influence of individual and site-level factors from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC) early educational program on four competence outcomes for 1539 minority youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Individual-level factors included race, gender, risk status, kindergarten duration, and preschool and follow-on experience. Two models were developed to examine site-level factors. The program model included instructional approach, site location, and parent involvement. The school model included the percentage of families that were low-income and the percentage of families that were residentially stable. Outcomes included kindergarten word analysis, eighth grade reading achievement, high school completion, and juvenile delinquency. Results based on hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses indicated that preschool participation was more important than any of the site-level factors. The most consistent site-level finding was that lower income levels within a school attendance area was linked with poorer school and social outcomes. Site-level parental involvement predicted both early and later school outcomes. Instructional approach was not a significant program factor. Site location and family stability were not typically predictive of child outcomes. Policy implications and limitations of the study are addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-296
Number of pages24
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 9 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Child-Parent
  • HLM
  • Site-level


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