Naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDOS) is a three-component enzyme that catalyzes cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene formation from naphthalene, O2, and NADH. We have determined the conditions for a single turnover of NDOS for the first time and studied the regulation of catalysis. As isolated, the α3β3 oxygenase component (NDO) has up to three catalytic pairs of metal centers (one mononuclear Fe2+ and one diferric Rieske iron-sulfur cluster). This form of NDO is unreactive with O2. However, upon reduction of the Rieske cluster and exposure to naphthalene and O2, ∼0.85 cis-diol product per occupied mononuclear iron site rapidly forms. Substrate binding is required for oxygen reactivity. Stopped-flow and chemical quench analyses indicate that the rate constant of the single turnover product-forming reaction significantly exceeds the NDOS turnover number. UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies show that during catalysis, one mononuclear iron and one Rieske cluster are oxidized per product formed, satisfying the two-electron reaction stoichiometry. The addition of oxidized or reduced NDOS ferredoxin component (NDF) increases both the product yield and rate of oxidation of formerly unreactive Rieske clusters. The results show that NDO alone catalyzes dioxygenase chemistry, whereas NDF appears to serve only an electron transport role, in this case redistributing electrons to competent active sites.