Mitochondrial membrane potential varies, depending on energy demand, subcellular location, and morphology and is commonly used as an indicator of mitochondrial functional status. Electrophoretic mobility is a heterogeneous surface property reflective of mitochondrial surface composition and morphology, which could be used as a basis for separation of mitochondrial subpopulations. Since these properties are heterogeneous, methods for their characterization in individual mitochondria are needed to better design and understand electrophoretic separations of subpopulations of mitochondria. Here we report on the first method for simultaneous determination of individual mitochondrial membrane potential and electrophoretic mobility by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). Mitochondria were isolated from cultured cells, mouse muscle, or liver, and then polarized, labeled with JC-1 (a ratiometric fluorescent probe, which indicates changes in membrane potential), and separated with CE-LIF. Red/green fluorescence intensity ratios from individual mitochondria were used as an indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential. Reproducible distributions of individual mitochondrial membrane potential and electrophoretic mobility were observed. Analysis of polarized and depolarized regions of interest defined using red/green ratios and runs of depolarized controls allowed for the determination of membrane potential and comparison of electrophoretic mobility distributions in preparations containing depolarized mitochondria. Through comparison of these regions of interest, we observed dependence of electrophoretic mobility on membrane potential, with polarized regions of interest displaying decreased electrophoretic mobility. This method could be applied to investigate mitochondrial heterogeneity in aging or disease models where membrane potential is an important factor.