Simultaneous electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of animal models of epilepsy are methodologically challenging, but essential to better understand abnormal brain activity and hemodynamics during seizures. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging of medetomidine-sedated rats was performed using novel rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing (RASER) fast imaging pulse sequence and simultaneous local field potential measurements during kainic acid-induced seizures. The image distortion caused by the hippocampal-measuring electrode was clearly seen in echo planar imaging images, whereas no artifact was seen in RASER images. Robust blood oxygenation level-dependent responses were observed in the hippocampus during kainic acid-induced seizures. The recurrent epileptic seizures were detected in the local field potential signal after kainic acid injection. The presented combination of deep electrode local field potential measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging under medetomidine anesthesia, which does not significantly suppress kainic acidinduced seizures, provides a unique tool for studying abnormal brain activity in rats.
- Kainic acid
- Local field potential