Nichole L Morris, Curtis M. Craig, Jacob D Achtemeier, Peter A Easterlund

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Simulators offer a unique opportunity to test behavior, novel infrastructure, or innovative technologies at low cost and little risk to safety. This review focuses on driving simulation used for research purposes, but the information is relevant to other applications of simulation. The selection and design of simulators and their scenarios should be guided by considerations of fidelity and validity to allow for desired immersion and generalization to real-world formats. Selecting populations for their use requires consideration of representativeness, gender, age, and individual differences. Simulator sickness, similar to motion sickness, is a significant issue that constrains population sampling and scenario creation. Measurement of primary driving simulation performance can be supplemented with secondary performance metrics to enhance examination of the research question. Ultimately, simulators allow for safe exposure to rare and potentially fatal events to help train safe operation, predict risk factors, and develop life-saving interventions to make transportation safer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Transportation
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1-7
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780081026724
ISBN (Print)9780081026717
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


  • Driving
  • Fidelity
  • Measurement
  • Performance
  • Population
  • Psychophysiology
  • Research
  • Safety
  • Sample
  • Simulation
  • Simulation sickness
  • Training
  • Transportation
  • Validity


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