Simulation of proton radiation belt formation during the March 24, 1991 SSC

M. K. Hudson, A. D. Kotelnikov, X. Li, I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. Wygant, J. B. Blake, M. S. Gussenhoven

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The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L ≃ 2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of both solar and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that while both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20–80 MeV range, primary contribution is from the solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from relativistic electron acceleration in that different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L. Model drift echoes and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-294
Number of pages4
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 1995

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements The study was supported by the DFG (SFB914 TP B8, SFB1123 TP A6, B5, Z1, SO876/6-1, SO876/11-1, AN372/14-3, AN372/24-1, INST409/97-1FUGG and INST409/150-1FUGG), the EKFS (2016_A118, 2017_A13), the NWO (VIDI project 91712303), the Leducq foundation, and the Vetenskapradet. Funding was also provided by grants SAF2015-65607-R to A.H., BES-2013–065550 to J.M.A., and Severo Ochoa Center of Excellence (award SEV-2015-0505) to CNIC, all from the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades. We thank O. Schengel for mouse genotyping and V. Lavilla for generating video animations. This work used the platforms of the Grenoble Instruct-ERIC Center (ISBG: UMS 3518 CNRS-CEA-UGA-EMBL) with support from FRISBI (ANR-10 INSB-05-02) and GRAL (ANR-10-LABX-49-01). E.Y.L. acknowledges support from the Systems and Integrative Biology Training Program (T32GM008185), the Medical Scientist Training Program (T32GM008042), and the Dermatology Scientist Training Program (T32AR071307) at UCLA. E.Y.L. and G.C.L.W. acknowledge an Early Career Research Grant and a Discovery Grant, respectively, from the National Psoriasis Foundation. G.C.L.W. also acknowledges support from NIH R56AI125429-01A1.


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