Background The American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEI) Consortium aims to enhance patient safety and advance surgical education through the use of cutting-edge simulation-based training and assessment methods. The annual ACS-AEI Consortium meeting provides a forum to discuss the latest simulation-based training and assessment methods and includes special panel presentations on key topics. Methods During the 8th annual Consortium, there was a panel presentation on simulation-based summative assessments, during which experiences from across surgical disciplines were presented. The formal presentations were followed by a robust discussion between the conference attendees and the panelists. Results This report summarizes the panelists' presentations and their ensuing discussion with attendees. Conclusion The focus of this report is on the basis for and advances in simulation-based summative assessments, the current practices employed across various surgical disciplines, and future directions that may be pursued by the ACS-AEI Consortium.