Simulating and evaluating the local behavior of small pedestrian groups

Ioannis Karamouzas, Mark Overmars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Recent advancements in local methods have significantly improved the collision avoidance behavior of virtual characters. However, existing methods fail to take into account that in real life pedestrians tend to walk in small groups, consisting mainly of pairs or triples of individuals. We present a novel approach to simulate the walking behavior of such small groups. Our model describes how group members interact with each other, with other groups and individuals. We highlight the potential of our method through a wide range of test-case scenarios. We evaluate the results from our simulations using a number of quantitative quality metrics, and also provide visual and numerical comparisons with video footages of real crowds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5963666
Pages (from-to)394-406
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research has been supported by the GATE project, funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Netherlands ICT Research and Innovation Authority (ICT Regie).


  • Multiagent systems
  • animation
  • kinematics and dynamics
  • virtual reality


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