Hierarchically ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica materials (HMMS) were synthesized using a single structure-directing agent. The mesocellular pores are synthesized without adding any pore expander; the pore walls are composed of SBA-15 type mesopores. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed the presence of uniform pore structures with two different sizes. Using HMMS as a nanoscopic template, hierarchically ordered mesocellular mesoporous carbon (HMMC) and polymer (HMMP) materials were synthesized. HMMS was used as a host for enzyme immobilization. To improve the retention of enzymes in HMMS, we adsorbed enzymes, and then employed cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA). The resulting cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) show an impressive stability with extremely high enzyme loadings. For example, 0.5 g a-chymotrypsin (CT) could be loaded in 1 g of silica with no activity decrease observed with rigorous shaking over one month. In contrast, adsorbed CT without GA treatment resulted in a lower loading, which further decreased due to continuous leaching of adsorbed CT under shaking. The activity of crosslinked CT aggregates in HMMS was ≈ 10 times higher than that of the adsorbed CT, which represents a 74-fold increase in activity per unit weight of HMMS due to higher CT loading.
- Mesoporous materials
- Template synthesis