For older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) provides the best chance of long-term survival. A formal comparison between matched sibling (SIB), unrelated donor (URD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has not yet been reported in this setting. We compared reduced-intensity conditioning HCT in 197 consecutive patients 50years and older with AML in complete remission from SIB (n=82), URD (n=35), or UCB (n=80) transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality were 18%, 14%, and 24% with SIB, URD, and UCB transplantation, respectively (. P=.22). The 3-year leukemia-free survival rates were 48%, 57%, and 33% with SIB, URD, and UCB transplantation, respectively (. P=.009). In multivariate analysis, poor-risk cytogenetics was associated with relapse (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.0]; P=.04) and worse leukemia-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5]; P=.03), whereas donor choice had no significant impact on overall survival (. P=.73). Adjusted 3-year overall survival rates were 55% with SIB, 45% with URD, and 43% with UCB transplantation (. P=.26). Until prospective studies are completed, this study supports the recommendation to consider SIB donor, URD, or UCB for HCT for older patients with AML in complete remission.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Cord blood
- Older patients
- Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen
- Unrelated donor