Signaling molecules involved in induction and early patterning of limb buds

Y. Kawakami, T. Nohno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Soluble signaling factors are involved in morphogenetic events during vertebrate limb development. They belong to the Hedgehog family, the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and the Wnt family. FGF-8 and FGF-10 play central roles to specify the limb field and promote initial outgrowth. In the established limb bud, FGF-4, FGF-8 and BMP-2 are secreted in the apical ectodermal ridge and control proximal-distal pattern formation. In the zone of polarizing activity Sonic hedgehog is produced and pattern along the anterior-posterior axis. Members of the BMP family may be the secondary signals in this patterning. Wnt-7a from the dorsal ectoderm dorsalizes limb mesenchyme and controls dorsal-ventral patterning. These factors expressed in the signaling centers in limb buds influence gene expression each other and coordinate limb morphogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)655-666
Number of pages12
JournalActa Anatomica Nipponica
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1998


  • Chick and mouse
  • Growth factors
  • Pattern formation
  • Signaling centers
  • Tissue interaction


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