Environmental and life-style aspects are major contributors to human carcinogenesis and, therefore, many human cancers may be preventable. Cancer is the end result of defects in cellular signaling processes that play a key role in the control of cell growth, survival, division, and differentiation. Therefore, identifying molecular and cellular targets critical in cancer development and prevention is an area of intensive research, driving the development of highly specific small-molecule inhibitors. A major idea today is that cancer may be prevented or treated by targeting the products of specific cancer-related genes, frequently encoding signaling proteins or transcription factors. Participants in these joint conferences discussed their latest findings in the identification of promising molecular targets and the development of agents directed against these targets with the goal of effectively transitioning these into the clinical setting.