The viral kinetics of HERV-K in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not unknown. HERV-K kinetic modeling may provide insight into factors altering the effectiveness of HAART in suppressing HIV-1 burden. We conducted a longitudinal study measuring the HERV-K RNA titers in four patients with successful HIV-1-suppressive HAART and in six patients undergoing HAART failure. HERV-K titers were usually undetectable in patients with successful HAART, and when detected, HERV-K titers remained below 5000 copies/ml. On the other hand, HERV-K RNA was consistently detected in patients who failed to respond to HAART before and after HIV-1 rebounds (p < 0.001). Elevated HERV-K RNA titers frequently preceded HIV-1 rebounds. These results suggest that HERV-K viral load may predict HIV-1 reactivation. HERV-K RNA testing might be clinically useful in predicting the onset of HIV-1 resistance due to suboptimal antiretroviral drug levels and/or poor adherence to treatment.