Shifting paradigms: From flexner to competencies

Carol Carraccio, Susan D. Wolfsthal, Robert Englander, Kevin Ferentz, Christine Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

693 Scopus citations


Realizing medical education is on the brink of a major paradigm shift from structure- and process-based to competency-based education and measurement of outcomes, the authors reviewed the existing medical literature to provide practical insight into how to accomplish full implementation and evaluation of this new paradigm. They searched Medline and the Educational Resource Information Clearinghouse from the 1960s until the present, reviewed the titles and abstracts of the 469 articles the search produced, and chose 68 relevant articles for full review. The authors found that in the 1970s and 1980s much attention was given to the need for and the development of professional competencies for many medical disciplines. Little attention, however, was devoted to defining the benchmarks of specific competencies, how to attain them, or the evaluation of competence. Lack of evaluation strategies was likely one of the forces responsible for the threedecade lag between initiation of the movement and widespread adoption. Lessons learned from past experiences include the importance of strategic planning and faculty and learner buy-in for defining competencies. In addition, the benchmarks for defining competency and the thresholds for attaining competence must be clearly delineated. The development of appropriate assessment tools to measure competence remains the challenge of this decade, and educators must be responsible for studying the impact of this paradigm shift to determine whether its ultimate effect is the production of more competent physicians.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-367
Number of pages7
JournalAcademic Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2002


Dive into the research topics of 'Shifting paradigms: From flexner to competencies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this