Cancer markers are measurable molecules in the blood or tissue that are produced by tumor cells or immune cells in response to cancer progression. They play an important role in clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and anti-drug monitoring. Although DNA, RNA, and even physical images have been used, proteins continue to be the most common marker. There are currently no specific markers for lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer, particularly non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is one of the most common causes of death. SFPQ, YY1, RTN4, RICTOR, LARP6, and HELLS are expressed at higher levels in cells from NSCLC than in control or cells from inflammatory diseases. SFPQ shows the most difference between the three cell types. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic isoform of SFPQ is only found in advanced cancers. We have developed ELISAs to detect SFPQ and the long and short isoforms. Evidence has shown that the short isoform exists primarily in cancers. Furthermore, immunocytometry studies and IHC analysis have revealed that SFPQ levels are consistent with ELISA results. In addition, enhanced DNA methylation in the SFPQ gene may facilitate the SFPQ expression differences between control and cancer cells. Considering this, elevated SFPQ level and the isoform location could serve as a cancer diagnostic and prognostic marker.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Human sample collection and screening were conducted by Bionet at the University of Minnesota. The gene molecular work was performed at the viral vector and cloning Core at the University of Minnesota; supporting agencies are listed here: https://vvcc.umn.edu/ , accessed on 1 June 2023. Sample collection was supported by the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, grant UL1TR002494. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01 HL125227 to C.A.H. and UL1TR002494 to J.P. The authors have no conflicting financial interests.
© 2023 by the authors.
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