Sexual orientation-based differential item functioning in measures of body image concerns and ideals among men.

Melissa Simone, Joseph M. Donahue, Lisa M. Anderson, Drew Anderson

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4 Scopus citations


Body image concerns and body ideals are linked with eating disorders and psychological health. Body image and ideals among men differ by sexual orientation, which may influence the utility of common measures of such constructs. The present study used differential item functioning (DIF) analyses to examine whether item endorsement differs as a function of sexual orientation in 3 commonly used measures of body image concerns and ideals. Participants were sexual minority (n = 209) and heterosexual (n = 494) men in the United States. Scores on the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS), Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire–4 (SATAQ-4), and Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) were examined. DIF was tested in a 3-step regression wherein item scores were predicted by: (a) subscale score, (b) subscale and sexual orientation, and (c) subscale, sexual orientation, and their product term. Model fit and variance explain comparisons identified by DIF. Δ pseudo R2 value ≥ .035 from Step 1 to 3 signified clinically significant DIF. There was no evidence of clinically significant DIF for the DMS, SATAQ-4, or OBCS. Findings suggest that DMS, SATAQ-4, and OBCS perform similarly for sexual minority and heterosexual men. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved) Public Significance Statement—Body image concerns differentially relate to health among men with diverse sexual orientations. Differential item analyses revealed that measures of sociocultural pressure, drive for muscularity, and body objectification function similarly among heterosexual and sexual minority men, which supports the use of such measures in diverse samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalPsychology of Men and Masculinity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 26 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Psychological Association


  • body image
  • differential item functioning
  • muscularity
  • sexual orientation
  • sociocultural ideals


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