Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the sex-specific associations of mutually exclusive iron-anemia status categories with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus. Methods: Baseline cross-sectional data (7247 women and 4904 men without self-reported diabetes mellitus) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos were analyzed. Per the American Diabetes Association's defined criteria, based on HbA1C levels, the participants were categorized as having normoglycemia, prediabetes, or probable diabetes mellitus. The iron-anemia status categories were as follows: no anemia and no iron deficiency (reference), iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and non-iron deficiency anemia (non-IDA). Survey multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the sex-specific associations of iron-anemia status with HbA1C levels after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of iron-anemia status categories differed by sex. Compared with those with no anemia and no iron deficiency and normoglycemia, women with IDA had higher odds of having prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.64-2.89) and probable diabetes mellitus (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.62-7.99) based on HbA1C levels; men with non-IDA had higher odds of having probable diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.78) based on HbA1C levels. All other associations did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus, the age-standardized prevalence of iron deficiency, IDA, and non-IDA is high and varies by sex. Women with IDA had higher odds of having prediabetes and probable diabetes mellitus, defined based on HbA1C levels. Men with non-IDA had higher odds of having probable diabetes mellitus, defined based on HbA1C levels. Iron-anemia status should be considered while interpreting elevated HbA1C levels among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We sincerely thank the HCHS/SOL participants and staff members. We also thank the staff members across Field Centers, whose dedication and ceaseless energy made the recruitment and baseline examination a success, and the over 16,000 participants who believed in making a difference. The baseline examination of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos was carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert Einstein College of Medicine (N01-HC65235), Northwestern University (N01-HC65236), and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following National Institutes of Health institutes or offices collaborated and cofunded the first phase of the study: the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Dr Estrella was partially funded by a the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Research Supplement to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research 75N92019D00012 to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Chicago Field Center. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. federal government.
- hemoglobin A1C
- iron and anemia status
- iron deficiency
- probable diabetes mellitus
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article