Sex-related differences in outcomes among men and women under 55 years of age with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the PROMETHEUS study

Jaya Chandrasekhar, Usman Baber, Samantha Sartori, Michela Faggioni, Melissa Aquino, Annapoorna Kini, William Weintraub, Sunil Rao, Samir Kapadia, Sandra Weiss, Craig Strauss, Catalin Toma, Brent Muhlestein, Anthony DeFranco, Mark Effron, Stuart Keller, Brian Baker, Stuart Pocock, Timothy Henry, Roxana Mehran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Young women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience greater adverse events than men, potentially due to under-treatment. We sought to compare the 1-year outcomes by sex in patients ≤55 years of age from a contemporary PCI cohort. Methods: PROMETHEUS was a retrospective multicenter observational US study comparing outcomes in clopidogrel and prasugrel treated patients following ACS PCI. MACE was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Hazard ratios were generated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The study cohort included 4,851 patients of which 1,162 (24.0%) were women and 3,689 (76.0%) were men. In this cohort, the prevalence of diabetes (41.0 vs. 27.9%) and chronic kidney disease (12.7 vs. 7.2%) was higher among women compared with men. Irrespective of sex, prasugrel was used in less than one-third of patients (31.8% in men vs. 28.1% in women, P = 0.01). Unadjusted, 1-year MACE (21.1% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.001) and bleeding (3.6% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in women compared with men, but these results were no longer significant after adjustment for risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94–1.36 for MACE and HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85–2.04 for bleeding). Conclusion: Women ≤ 55 years of age undergoing ACS PCI have significantly greater comorbidities than young men. Despite a higher risk clinical phenotype in women, prasugrel use was significantly lower in women than men. Female sex was associated with a significantly higher risk of 1-year MACE and bleeding than male sex, findings that are attributable to baseline differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)629-637
Number of pages9
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Volume89
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Keywords

  • long-term outcomes
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • sex-related differences
  • under-treatment in women
  • young patients with acute coronary syndrome

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