Sex ratio among childhood cancers by single year of age

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The male excess in childhood cancer incidence is well-established; however, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Examining the association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age and tumor type may highlight important periods of risk such as variation in growth and hormonal changes, which will inform etiologic hypotheses. Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries (2000–2015), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated as the measure of association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age (0–19). Results: The IRR for male cancer overall was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18–1.20) and was similar in magnitude at nearly every year of age. Burkitt lymphoma was strongly associated with male sex (IRRs ≥2 at each year of age). Increased incidence was observed among males for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for nearly all years of age. Medulloblastoma was the only central nervous system tumor with a significant male predominance at nearly every age. Male sex displayed a consistent inverse association with nephroblastoma and thyroid carcinoma over the ages studied. Conclusions: Male sex was positively associated with most cancers. The higher incidence rates observed in males remained consistent over the childhood and adolescent periods, suggesting that childhood and adolescent hormonal fluctuations may not be the primary driving factor for the sex disparities in childhood cancer. The observed incidence disparities may be due to sex differences in exposures, genetics, or immune responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere27620
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Volume66
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Fingerprint

Sex Ratio
Neoplasms
Incidence
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Confidence Intervals
Sex Factors
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Medulloblastoma
Burkitt Lymphoma
Wilms Tumor
Hodgkin Disease
Thyroid Neoplasms
Sex Characteristics
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Registries
Epidemiology

Keywords

  • childhood cancer incidence
  • epidemiology
  • sex differences

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

@article{b58ab7766d404dcf8d11fb68336b25d4,
title = "Sex ratio among childhood cancers by single year of age",
abstract = "Background: The male excess in childhood cancer incidence is well-established; however, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Examining the association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age and tumor type may highlight important periods of risk such as variation in growth and hormonal changes, which will inform etiologic hypotheses. Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries (2000–2015), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95{\%} confidence intervals (95{\%} CI) were estimated as the measure of association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age (0–19). Results: The IRR for male cancer overall was 1.19 (95{\%} CI, 1.18–1.20) and was similar in magnitude at nearly every year of age. Burkitt lymphoma was strongly associated with male sex (IRRs ≥2 at each year of age). Increased incidence was observed among males for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for nearly all years of age. Medulloblastoma was the only central nervous system tumor with a significant male predominance at nearly every age. Male sex displayed a consistent inverse association with nephroblastoma and thyroid carcinoma over the ages studied. Conclusions: Male sex was positively associated with most cancers. The higher incidence rates observed in males remained consistent over the childhood and adolescent periods, suggesting that childhood and adolescent hormonal fluctuations may not be the primary driving factor for the sex disparities in childhood cancer. The observed incidence disparities may be due to sex differences in exposures, genetics, or immune responses.",
keywords = "childhood cancer incidence, epidemiology, sex differences",
author = "Williams, {Lindsay A.} and Michaela Richardson and Marcotte, {Erin L.} and Poynter, {Jenny N.} and Spector, {Logan G.}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1002/pbc.27620",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "66",
journal = "Pediatric Blood and Cancer",
issn = "1545-5009",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sex ratio among childhood cancers by single year of age

AU - Williams, Lindsay A.

AU - Richardson, Michaela

AU - Marcotte, Erin L.

AU - Poynter, Jenny N.

AU - Spector, Logan G.

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - Background: The male excess in childhood cancer incidence is well-established; however, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Examining the association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age and tumor type may highlight important periods of risk such as variation in growth and hormonal changes, which will inform etiologic hypotheses. Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries (2000–2015), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated as the measure of association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age (0–19). Results: The IRR for male cancer overall was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18–1.20) and was similar in magnitude at nearly every year of age. Burkitt lymphoma was strongly associated with male sex (IRRs ≥2 at each year of age). Increased incidence was observed among males for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for nearly all years of age. Medulloblastoma was the only central nervous system tumor with a significant male predominance at nearly every age. Male sex displayed a consistent inverse association with nephroblastoma and thyroid carcinoma over the ages studied. Conclusions: Male sex was positively associated with most cancers. The higher incidence rates observed in males remained consistent over the childhood and adolescent periods, suggesting that childhood and adolescent hormonal fluctuations may not be the primary driving factor for the sex disparities in childhood cancer. The observed incidence disparities may be due to sex differences in exposures, genetics, or immune responses.

AB - Background: The male excess in childhood cancer incidence is well-established; however, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Examining the association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age and tumor type may highlight important periods of risk such as variation in growth and hormonal changes, which will inform etiologic hypotheses. Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries (2000–2015), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated as the measure of association between male sex and childhood cancer by single year of age (0–19). Results: The IRR for male cancer overall was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18–1.20) and was similar in magnitude at nearly every year of age. Burkitt lymphoma was strongly associated with male sex (IRRs ≥2 at each year of age). Increased incidence was observed among males for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for nearly all years of age. Medulloblastoma was the only central nervous system tumor with a significant male predominance at nearly every age. Male sex displayed a consistent inverse association with nephroblastoma and thyroid carcinoma over the ages studied. Conclusions: Male sex was positively associated with most cancers. The higher incidence rates observed in males remained consistent over the childhood and adolescent periods, suggesting that childhood and adolescent hormonal fluctuations may not be the primary driving factor for the sex disparities in childhood cancer. The observed incidence disparities may be due to sex differences in exposures, genetics, or immune responses.

KW - childhood cancer incidence

KW - epidemiology

KW - sex differences

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062354608&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062354608&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/pbc.27620

DO - 10.1002/pbc.27620

M3 - Article

C2 - 30815990

AN - SCOPUS:85062354608

VL - 66

JO - Pediatric Blood and Cancer

JF - Pediatric Blood and Cancer

SN - 1545-5009

IS - 6

M1 - e27620

ER -