Sex differences in Alzheimer's disease: Understanding the molecular impact

Carlos A. Toro, Larry Zhang, Jiqing Cao, Dongming Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that presents with cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbance. Approximately 5.5 million people in the United States live with AD, most of whom are over the age of 65 with two-thirds being woman. There have been major advancements over the last decade or so in the understanding of AD neuropathological changes and genetic involvement. However, studies of sex impact in AD have not been adequately integrated into the investigation of disease development and progression. It becomes indispensable to acknowledge in both basic science and clinical research studies the importance of understanding sex-specific differences in AD pathophysiology and pathogenesis, which could guide future effort in the discovery of novel targets for AD. Here, we review the latest and most relevant literature on this topic, highlighting the importance of understanding sex dimorphism from a molecular perspective and its association to clinical trial design and development in AD research field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-207
Number of pages14
JournalBrain Research
Volume1719
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
DC is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014), by Department of Veteran Affairs BLR&D (1I01BX003380) and RR&D (1I01RX002290), as well as by New York State SCI Foundation. CAT is supported by New York State SCI Foundation. LZ is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923 for DC) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014 for DC). JC is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923 for DC) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014 for DC).

Funding Information:
DC is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014), by Department of Veteran Affairs BLR&D (1I01BX003380) and RR&D ( 1I01RX002290 ), as well as by New York State SCI Foundation . CAT is supported by New York State SCI Foundation. LZ is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923 for DC) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014 for DC). JC is supported by NIH R01 (1R01AG048923 for DC) and RF1 (1RF1AG054014 for DC).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Molecular impact
  • Pathogenesis
  • Risk factors
  • Sex differences

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