Severe storm damage and short-term weather stresses on corn: A review

Alexander J. Lindsey, Osler A. Ortez, Peter R. Thomison, Paul R. Carter, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Greg W. Roth, Daniela R. Carrijo, Daniel J. Quinn, Mark A. Licht

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Adverse weather conditions from acute events (e.g., storms causing lodging, flooding, or hail) or short-duration weather patterns (i.e., periods of cold events; extended waterlogged field conditions) can result in yield losses, though management practices may play key roles in aiding with crop recovery or avoidance of these stress events. This review summarizes current knowledge (with emphasis placed on the US Midwest) related to corn response to short-term weather stresses of (i) cold temperature, (ii) excess water, (iii) hail/defoliation damage, and (iv) wind damage. Each section presents summaries of how corn growth and yield are affected, provides context into past events experienced, identifies agronomic or production recommendations to correct or alleviate the stress condition, and proposes areas where future research is needed. This review also highlights challenges associated with controlled simulation work on these stressors, and also identifies key areas to expand future research efforts. In general, yield losses associated with strong storms and short-term weather events often ranged from 5% to 35%, but extreme cases could result in up to 80%–100% yield loss. Much of the literature on these topics was published prior to 1995, though it still forms the basis for modern agronomic guidance, which is problematic given the changes in agriculture in the last 20 years in management practices, available genetics and technologies, and changing environmental conditions. Revisiting these foundational studies and expanding them to examine current and future weather conditions are critical for better informing agronomic recommendations, for devising mitigation strategies, and for determining accurate yield loss expectations following these stresses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1129-1166
Number of pages38
JournalCrop Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2024

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© 2024 The Authors. Crop Science published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Crop Science Society of America.


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