Severe Mitral Annular Calcification: Multimodality Imaging for Therapeutic Strategies and Interventions

Mackram F. Eleid, Thomas A. Foley, Sameh M. Said, Sorin V. Pislaru, Charanjit S. Rihal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic degenerative process associated with advanced age and conditions predisposing to left ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment of mitral valve disease in patients with severe MAC can be a challenge. When severe MAC results in mitral stenosis or regurgitation, multimodality imaging with 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography angiography can delineate the severity and pathoanatomic features to help guide therapeutic strategies. New approaches using computer-assisted simulation of transcatheter valves and novel percutaneous and surgical techniques are being used to devise effective alternative strategies to conventional mitral valve replacement in this high-risk group of patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1318-1337
Number of pages20
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation


  • cardiac computed tomography angiography
  • echocardiography
  • mitral annular calcification
  • transcatheter mitral valve implantation


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