Several scales of biodiversity affect ecosystem multifunctionality

Jae R. Pasari, Taal Levi, Erika S. Zavaleta, David Tilman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

203 Scopus citations


Society values landscapes that reliably provide many ecosystem functions. As the study of ecosystem functioning expands to include more locations, time spans, and functions, the functional importance of individual species is becoming more apparent. However, the functional importance of individual species does not necessarily translate to the functional importance of biodiversity measured in whole communities of interacting species. Furthermore, ecological diversity at scales larger than neighborhood species richness could also influence the provision of multiple functions over extended time scales. We created experimental landscapes based on whole communities from the world's longest running biodiversity-functioning field experiment to investigate how local species richness (α diversity), distinctness among communities (β diversity), and larger scale species richness (γ diversity) affected eight ecosystem functions over 10 y. Using both threshold-based and unique multifunctionality metrics, we found that α diversity had strong positive effects on most individual functions and multifunctionality, and that positive effects of β and γ diversity emerged only when multiple functions were considered simultaneously. Higher β diversity also reduced the variability in multifunctionality. Thus, in addition to conserving important species, maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality will require diverse landscape mosaics of diverse communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10219-10222
Number of pages4
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number25
StatePublished - Jun 18 2013


  • Alpha diversity
  • Beta diversity
  • Cedar creek
  • Ecosystem service
  • Gamma diversity


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