We study the case of inertial particles heated by thermal radiation while settling by gravity through a turbulent transparent gas. We consider dilute and optically thin regimes in which each particle receives the same heat flux. Numerical simulations of forced homogeneous turbulence are performed taking into account the two-way coupling of both momentum and temperature between the dispersed and continuous phases. Particles much smaller than the smallest flow scales are considered and the point-particle approximation is adopted. The particle Stokes number (based on the Kolmogorov time scale) is of order unity, while the nominal settling velocity is up to an order of magnitude larger than the Kolmogorov velocity, marking a critical difference with previous two-way coupled simulations. It is found that non-heated particles enhance turbulence when their settling velocity is sufficiently high compared to the Kolmogorov velocity. Energy spectra show that the non-heated particle settling impacts both the very small and very large flow scales, while the intermediate scales are weakly affected. When heated, particles shed plumes of buoyant gas, further modifying the turbulence structure. At the considered radiation intensities, clustering is strong but the classic mechanism of preferential concentration is modified, while preferential sweeping is eliminated or even reversed. Particle heating also causes a significant reduction of the mean settling velocity, which is caused by rising buoyant plumes in the vicinity of particle clusters. The turbulent kinetic energy is affected non-monotonically as the radiation intensity is increased due to the competing effects of the downward gravitational force and the upward buoyancy force. The thermal radiation influences all scales of the turbulence. The effects of settling and buoyancy on the turbulence anisotropy are also discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program 2 (PSAAP2) at Stanford University.
© 2016 Cambridge University Press.
- multiphase and particle-laden flows
- particle/fluid flow