Settings—community, worksite, schools, and healthcare sites—constitute an important dimension of health education/health promotion policy and programs and for research about program needs, feasibility, efficacy, and effectiveness. These settings vary in the extent of coverage of and relationships with their respective constituencies, valued outcomes, and quantity and quality of evidence about the effectiveness of setting-specific and cross-setting programs. Main sources of evidence for program efficacy and effectiveness are summarized, leading to the conclusion that strides have been made toward building a strong evidentiary base for health education/health promotion in these settings. Gaps in research exist, especially for diffusion of effective programs, new technologies, the influence of policy, relations between settings, and approaches to marginal and special subgroups. Recommendations are offered for cross-setting and within-setting research related to intervention.
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