Setting surface wipe limits for skin sensitizers

Bruce D. Naumann, Susan F. Arnold

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Guidance for managing potential dermal exposures has historically been qualitative in nature, for example, in the form of a DSEN notation. We propose a method that can provide quantitative guidance on how to establish and use surface wipe limits for skin sensitizers. The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a validated test that not only identifies potential skin sensitizers but also provides an effective concentration (EC3) value. This provides quantitative dose–response information on induction of skin sensitization that permits estimates of sensitization thresholds and potency. Building upon the previously established correlation between LLNA EC3 values and human repeat insult patch testing no-effect levels, we present a quantitative method for setting surface wipe guidelines using the LLNA EC3. These limits can be used to assign compounds to occupational exposure bands and provide handling guidance for skin sensitizers of varying potency, supporting both exposure assessment and control strategies. A table is included that suggests a band of reasonable surface wipe limits (mg/100 cm2) for potentially all chemical sensitizers. When used in conjunction with a comprehensive industrial hygiene program that includes hazard communication, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment, skin exposure and consequent skin sensitization risks in the workplace can be minimized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)614-625
Number of pages12
JournalToxicology and Industrial Health
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Exposure assessment
  • OEBs
  • hazard identification
  • risk assessment
  • sensitization potency

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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