Background: There are inconsistent findings on the role of hyperuricemia as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension has been implicated as a factor influencing the association between serum uric acid and CKD. In this population-based study we investigated the association between serum uric acid and decline in renal function and tested whether hypertension moderates this association. Methods: We included 2601 subjects aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Serum uric acid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed at baseline. After average 6.5 years of follow-up, second eGFR was assessed. CKD was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2. All associations were corrected for socio-demographic and cardiovascular factors. Results: Each unit (mg/dL) increase in serum uric acid was associated with 0.19 ml/min per 1.73 m2 faster annual decline in eGFR. While the association between serum uric acid and incidence of CKD was not significant in our study population (Hazard Ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.28), incorporating our results in a meta-analysis with eleven published studies revealed a significant association (Relative Risk: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.15-1.22). In the stratified analyses, we observed that the associations of serum uric acid with eGFR decline and incident CKD were stronger in hypertensive subjects (P for interaction = 0.046 and 0.024, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that hyperuricemia is independently associated with a decline in renal function. Stronger association in hypertensive individuals may indicate that hypertension mediates the association between serum uric acid and CKD.