Background Serum cystatin has been shown to be associated with hypertension in the general population. Little is known on the relationship of serum cystatin C with the long-term hypertension incidence in persons with diabetes. We examined the association of serum cystatin C with the incidence of hypertension over a 15-year period in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods The 15-year cumulative incidence of hypertension was measured in Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy participants. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) of ≥140mmHg and/or a diastolic BP of ≥90mmHg and/or history of use of antihypertensive treatment. The relation of cystatin C and other risk factors to hypertension incidence was determined with generalized linear modeling with the complementary log-log link function. Results After controlling for age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin, and baseline systolic and diastolic BP, the baseline serum cystatin C was associated with the 15-year cumulative incidence of hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) per mg/l of cystatin C: 3.43, and 95% confidence interval: 1.36, 8.63). Conclusions These findings show a relationship of serum cystatin C with the incidence of hypertension in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The underlying biological processes remain to be determined.
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acknowledgments: This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants Ey016379 (R.K., B.E.K.K.) and DK073217 (R.K.) and by a Mentor-Based Postdoctoral Fellowship award to R.K. from the american Diabetes association, alexandria,Va.The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Eye Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
- blood pressure
- cystatin C
- type 1 diabetes