Serum prolactin (PRL) levels were determined by homologous radioimmunoassay in 6- to 10-week-old domestic white turkeys treated by intraperitoneal injection of agents that alter serotonergic activity. Quipazine (0.1-10.0 mg/kg), a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) agonist, induced a dose-dependent rise in serum PRL level 1 hr after injection. The 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), at doses of 80 and 150 mg/kg produced over a twofold elevation in PRL level 1 hr after administration, though the 50 mg/kg dose failed to produce any change. Administration of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), a 5-HT reuptake blocker, induced an elevation in PRL level persisting 3 hr. When fluoxetine injection preceded administration of a weakly stimulatory dose of 5-HTP, a prolonged elevation in PRL level was observed. Methysergide (MES), a 5-HT antagonist, administered in a 10 mg/kg dose produced no change in PRL level, while the 25 mg/kg dose initially produced a spike in PRL level which subsequently dropped slightly below the control level. Prior injection of 20 mg/kg MES completely blocked the serum PRL rises induced by quipazine and 5-HTP. These results suggest that serotonergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pituitary PRL release beyond basal levels in young domestic turkeys.