This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with neosporosis in sheep and dogs from rural properties. 1497 blood samples were collected from sheep and 42 from dogs that cohabited with sheep from 16 farms located in the central region of São Paulo State, Brazil. For the detection of N. caninum antibodies it was performed the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 25). For the epidemiological study it was applied a questionnaire for the owners or responsible from the sheep and dogs regarding informations related to neosporosis. The seroprevalence obtained out of the 1497 sheep sera tested was 8.0% (CI95% = 6.7-9.2%) and out of the 42 dogs 4.8% (CI95% = 0-7.2%). Variables statistically related to seropositivity for N. caninum in sheep were: dams well as water supply (P = 0.0004; OR = 2.15), presence of other domestic canids (P = 0.0013; OR = 2.38) and presence of reproductive problems (P = 0.0031; OR = 1.75).