Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

Marie René Gramer, Jee Hoon Lee, Young Ki Choi, Sagar M. Goyal, Han Soo Joo

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27 Scopus citations


The H3N2 subtype of influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in the United States and Canada has shown both genetic and antigenic diversity. The objective of this study was to determine the serologic and genetic characteristics of contemporary strains of these viruses. Genetic analysis of 18 reference strains and 8 selected strains demonstrated differences in 1% to 9% of the nucleotides of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed 3 genetic clusters, as well as divergence of cluster III viruses from a cluster III prototype virus (A/Swine/Illinois/21587/99). By means of 1-way cross-hemagglutination inhibition with antiserum against 5 field isolates and 3 vaccine viruses, most of 97 isolates tested could be placed in 1 of 3 serogroups. The several isolates that did not react with any antiserum were in genetic cluster III, which suggests that continuous antigenic drift in cluster III may have resulted in virus variants. The efficacy of commercial vaccines against these virus variants should be evaluated with vaccination and challenge studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-206
Number of pages6
JournalCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2007


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