Sequence Analysis of Six Candidate Genes in Miniature Schnauzers with Primary Hypertriglyceridemia

Nicole M. Tate, Michaela Underwood, Alison Thomas-Hollands, Katie M. Minor, Jonah N. Cullen, Steven G. Friedenberg, James R. Mickelson, Panagiotis G. Xenoulis, Joerg M. Steiner, Eva Furrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to primary hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of eight Miniature Schnauzers with primary HTG and screened for risk variants in six HTG candidate genes: LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1, LMF1, and APOE. Variants were filtered to identify those present in ≥2 Miniature Schnauzers with primary HTG and uncommon (<10% allele frequency) in a WGS variant database including 613 dogs from 61 other breeds. Three variants passed filtering: an APOE TATA box deletion, an LMF1 intronic SNP, and a GPIHBP1 missense variant. The APOE and GPIHBP1 variants were genotyped in a cohort of 108 Miniature Schnauzers, including 68 with primary HTG and 40 controls. A multivariable regression model, including age and sex, did not identify an effect of APOE (estimate = 0.18, std. error = 0.14; p = 0.20) or GPIHBP1 genotypes (estimate = −0.26, std. error = 0.42; p = 0.54) on triglyceride concentration. In conclusion, we did not identify a monogenic cause for primary HTG in Miniature Schnauzers in the six genes evaluated. However, if HTG in Miniature Schnauzers is a complex disease resulting from the cumulative effects of multiple variants and environment, the identified variants cannot be ruled out as contributing factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number193
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • Miniature Schnauzer
  • candidate genes
  • canine
  • hypertriglyceridemia

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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