Sepsis results in a deluge of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to lymphopenia and chronic immunoparalysis. Sepsis-induced long-lasting immunoparalysis is defined, in part, by impaired CD4 and CD8 αβ T cell responses in the postseptic environment. The dysfunction in T cell immunity affects naive, effector, and memory T cells and is not restricted to classical αβ T cells. Although sepsis-induced severe and transient lymphopenia is a contributory factor to diminished T cell immunity, T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors/ mechanisms also contribute to impaired T cell function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how sepsis quantitatively and qualitatively impairs CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity of classical and nonclassical T cell subsets and discuss current therapeutic approaches being developed to boost the recovery of T cell immunity postsepsis induction.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants GM113961, AI119160, AI114543 (to V.P.B.), GM115462 (to T.S.G.), 5 T32 AI007485 (to I.J.J.), and 5 T32 CA009138 (to F.V.S.) and by a U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Merit Review Award (to T.S.G.).
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants GM113961, AI119160, AI114543 (to V.P.B.), GM115462 (to T.S.G.), 5 T32 AI007485 (to I.J.J.),
© 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. All rights reserved.