Sepsis, Cytokine Storms, and Immunopathology: The Divide between Neonates and Adults

Kara G. Greenfield, Vladimir P. Badovinac, Thomas S. Griffith, Kathryn A. Knoop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sepsis can result from a variety of pathogens, originating from a range of sources. A vast range of presenting symptoms is included in the catch-all term of "bacteremia," making diagnosis and prognosis particularly troublesome. One underexplored factor contributing to disparate outcomes is the age of the patient. Neonatal sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants can result in vastly different immunological outcomes unique from sepsis in adults. It is also becoming increasingly clear, both from preclinical experimental models and clinical observations, that the age and history of previous microbial exposures can significantly influence the course of infection from sepsis and cytokine storms to immunopathology. In this study, we will explore key differences between neonatal and adult sepsis, experimental models used to study sepsis, and how responses to the surrounding microbial universe shape development of the immune system and impact, positively or negatively, the course of disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-522
Number of pages11
JournalImmunoHorizons
Volume5
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received for publication May 5, 2021. Accepted for publication June 2, 2021. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr. Kathryn A. Knoop, Mayo Clinic, 201 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905. E-mail address: knoop.kathryn@mayo.edu ORCIDs: 0000-0002-1315-5146 (K.G.G.); 0000-0003-3180-2439 (V.P.B.); 0000-0003-2007-3066 (K.A.K.). This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases DK109006 (to K.A.K.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AI144721 (to K.A.K.), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases DK122187 (to K.A.K.), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases AI114543 (to V.P.B.), National Institute of General Medical Sciences GM134880 (to V.P.B.), National Institute of General Medical Sciences GM115462 (to T.S.G.), National Institute of General Medical Sciences GM140881 (to T.S.G.), and Veterans Health Administration Merit Review Award I01BX001324 (to T.S.G.) Abbreviations used in thisarticle: CLP, cecal ligation and puncture; EOS, early-onset sepsis; GBS, group B Streptococcus; LOS, late-onset sepsis; SPF, specific pathogen--free.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2021 The Authors

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