Separating Electrons and Donors in BaSnO3 via Band Engineering

Abhinav Prakash, Nicholas F. Quackenbush, Hwanhui Yun, Jacob Held, Tianqi Wang, Tristan Truttmann, James M. Ablett, Conan Weiland, Tien Lin Lee, Joseph C. Woicik, K. Andre Mkhoyan, Bharat Jalan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Separating electrons from their source atoms in La-doped BaSnO3, the first perovskite oxide semiconductor to be discovered with high room-temperature electron mobility, remains a subject of great interest for achieving high-mobility electron gas in two dimensions. So far, the vast majority of work in perovskite oxides has focused on heterostructures involving SrTiO3 as an active layer. Here we report the demonstration of modulation doping in BaSnO3 as the high room-temperature mobility host without the use of SrTiO3. Significantly, we show the use of angle-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) as a nondestructive approach to not only determine the location of electrons at the buried interface but also to quantify the width of electron distribution in BaSnO3. The transport results are in good agreement with the results of self-consistent solution to one-dimensional Poisson and Schrödinger equations. Finally, we discuss viable routes to engineer two-dimensional electron gas density through band-offset engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8920-8927
Number of pages8
JournalNano letters
StatePublished - Sep 16 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank C. J. Powell for discussions regarding effective attenuation length calculations. This work was primarily supported through the Young Investigator Program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) through Grant FA9550-16-1-0205 and in part through Grant FA9550-19-1-0245. Part of this work is supported by the National Science Foundation through DMR-1741801 and partially by the UMN MRSEC program under Award No. DMR-1420013. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS-1542202. A.P. acknowledges support from University of Minnesota Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. We also acknowledge partial support from the renewable development funds (RDF) of the Institute on the Environment (UMN) and the Norwegian Centennial Chair Program seed funds. Parts of this research were performed while N.F.Q. held a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Research Council (NRC) Research Postdoctoral Associateship Award at the Material Measurement Lab. We thank Diamond Light Source for access to beamline I-09 (SI15845-1) that contributed to the results presented here.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Chemical Society.


  • alkaline-earth stannate
  • band alignment
  • charge transfer
  • Modulation doping
  • transparent conductor
  • wide band gap material

MRSEC Support

  • Partial

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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