Recent research has expanded our understanding of how the nervous system uses visual and kinesthetic input to move the arm to a target. In this review, we present data to show how the nervous system can rapidly use sensory input to control impending or ongoing motor activity. We contrast visual control with kinesthetic control to show how these two sources of sensory input are used to control parameters of motor command such as amplitude and direction, to trigger the motor commands, and then to correct errors in trajectory. Despite many differences in the organization of the visual and the kinesthetic sensory systems, the nervous system appears to process these two types of sensory input similarly.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
permissiont o use his unpublished descriptiono f pupal eye developmenta nd for manyp rovocative discussions.I am indebted to members of SeymourB enzer's laboratory for comments on an earlier versiono f this article. Work in the author's laboratory was funded by the NSF.
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