Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The review demonstrates that control of posture and locomotion is provided by systems across the caudal-to-rostral extent of the neuraxis. A common feature of the neuroanatomic organization of the postural and locomotor control systems is the presence of key nodes for convergent input of multisensory feedback in conjunction with efferent copies of the motor command. These nodes include the vestibular and reticular nuclei and interneurons in the intermediate zone of the spinal cord (Rexed's laminae VI–VIII). This organization provides both spatial and temporal coordination of the various goals of the system and ensures that the large repertoire of voluntary movements is appropriately coupled to either anticipatory or reactive postural adjustments that ensure stability and provide the framework to support the intended action. Redundancies in the system allow adaptation and compensation when sensory modalities are impaired. These alterations in behavior are learned through reward- and error-based learning processes implemented through basal ganglia and cerebellar pathways respectively. However, neurodegenerative processes or lesions of these systems can greatly compromise the capacity to sufficiently adapt and sometimes leads to maladaptive changes that impair movement control. When these impairments occur, the risk of falls can be significantly increased and interventions are required to reduce morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Clinical Neurology
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Pages3-26
Number of pages24
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Publication series

NameHandbook of Clinical Neurology
Volume159
ISSN (Print)0072-9752
ISSN (Electronic)2212-4152

Fingerprint

Gait
Anatomy
Organizations
Vestibular Nuclei
Social Adjustment
Interneurons
Locomotion
Basal Ganglia
Posture
Reward
Spinal Cord
Learning
Morbidity

Keywords

  • balance
  • gait
  • locomotion
  • neuroanatomy
  • posture

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review

Cite this

MacKinnon, C. (2018). Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology (pp. 3-26). (Handbook of Clinical Neurology; Vol. 159). Elsevier B.V.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00001-X

Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls. / MacKinnon, Colum.

Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier B.V., 2018. p. 3-26 (Handbook of Clinical Neurology; Vol. 159).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

MacKinnon, C 2018, Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls. in Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 159, Elsevier B.V., pp. 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00001-X
MacKinnon C. Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier B.V. 2018. p. 3-26. (Handbook of Clinical Neurology). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00001-X
MacKinnon, Colum. / Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier B.V., 2018. pp. 3-26 (Handbook of Clinical Neurology).
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