Sensitivity to Flg22 Is modulated by ligand-induced degradation and de novo synthesis of the endogenous flagellin-receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2

John M. Smith, Daniel J. Salamango, Michelle E. Leslie, Carina A. Collins, Antje Heese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) is the plant cell surface receptor that perceives bacterial flagellin or flg22 peptide, initiates flg22- signaling responses, and contributes to bacterial growth restriction. Flg22 elicitation also leads to ligand-induced endocytosis and degradation of FLS2 within 1 h. Why plant cells remove this receptor precisely at the time during which its function is required remains mainly unknown. Here, we assessed in planta flg22-signaling competency in the context of ligand-induced degradation of endogenous FLS2 and chemical interference known to impede flg22-dependent internalization of FLS2 into endocytic vesicles. Within 1 h after an initial flg22 treatment, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue was unable to reelicit flg22 signaling in a ligand-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that flg22-induced degradation of endogenous FLS2 may serve to desensitize cells to the same stimulus (homologous desensitization), likely to prevent continuous signal output upon repetitive flg22 stimulation. In addition to impeding ligand-induced FLS2 degradation, pretreatment with the vesicular trafficking inhibitors Wortmannin or Tyrphostin A23 impaired flg22-elicited reactive oxygen species production that was partially independent of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1. Interestingly, these inhibitors did not affect flg22-induced mitogenactivated protein kinase phosphorylation, indicating the ability to utilize vesicular trafficking inhibitors to target different flg22- signaling responses. For Tyrphostin A23, reduced flg22-induced reactive oxygen species could be separated from the defect in FLS2 degradation. At later times (>2 h) after the initial flg22 elicitation, recovery of FLS2 protein levels positively correlated with resensitization to flg22, indicating that flg22-induced new synthesis of FLS2 may prepare cells for a new round of monitoring the environment for flg22.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)440-454
Number of pages15
JournalPlant physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


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