Sensitivity of Bipolaris oryzae isolates pathogenic on cultivated wild rice to the quinone outside inhibitor azoxystrobin

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The occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of azoxystrobin-based fungicides. The active ingredient blocks electron transfer at the quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) site in the mitochondrial cytochrome b within the bc1 complex, thus obstructing respiration. The in vitro averaged EC50 of baseline isolates collected in 2007 before widespread fungicide use was estimated to be 0.394 mg/ml with PROBIT and 0.427 mg/ml with linear regression analyses. Isolates collected during 2008, 2015, and 2016 had a range of sensitivity as measured by relative spore germination (RG) at a discriminatory dose of 0.4 mg/ml azoxystrobin. Isolates with a higher (≥80%) and lower RG (≤40%) had the wild type nucleotides at amino acid positions F129, G137, and G143 of cytochrome b, sites known to be associated with QoI fungicide resistance. Two Group I introns were found in the QoI target area. The splicing site for the second intron was found immediately after the codon for G143. A mutation for fungicide resistance at this location would hinder splicing and severely reduce fitness. B. oryzae expresses an alternative oxidase in vitro, which allows the fungus to survive inhibition of respiration by azoxystrobin. This research indicates that B. oryzae has not developed resistance to QoI fungicides, although monitoring for changes in sensitivity should be continued. Judicious use of QoI fungicides within an integrated disease management system will promote an effective and environmentally sound control of the pathogen in wild rice paddies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1910-1917
Number of pages8
JournalPlant disease
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Alternative oxidase
  • Cytochrome b
  • EC

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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