Self-inflicted burns are among the most devastating of all burn injuries with serious physical, psychological, and financial effects on the individual, the patient's family, and society. This study was carried out to analyze the epidemiology, mortality, and current etiological factors of burn patients who were admitted to a major burn center in the Fars province. In a longitudinal prospective design, from April 2003 to March 2005, all burn patients that were admitted to Ghotb-eddin Shirazi Hospital were evaluated. Data in regard to patients' social demographics, burn injury, and outcome measures were collected. Suicide attempts by burning accounted for 231 (24.8%) of all burn patients admitted to hospital. Suicidal burns occurred predominantly in the age group 15 to 24 years (49.1%). Most (71.4%) self-burning cases were female. Deliberate self-burn patients have significantly larger burned body surface area than accidental burn patients [70% (4-100) vs 28% (1-100); P < .0001]. The case fatality rate for self-inflicted burns (62.3%) was significantly higher than the 27.7% rate observed for accidental burns (P < .0001). Burned body surface area >40% and self-inflicted burns strongly and independently predicted mortality. Self-inflicted burns continue to be a major health problem in this region. Special burn preventive programs should be implemented in primary health care system. A National Committee for Injury and Burn Prevention and Control should be established urgently to coordinate all burn prevention programs and collaborate between different sectors of the society.