Self-Assembled Three-Dimensional Graphene-Based Polyhedrons Inducing Volumetric Light Confinement

Daeha Joung, Andrei Nemilentsau, Kriti Agarwal, Chunhui Dai, Chao Liu, Qun Su, Jing Li, Tony Low, Steven J. Koester, Jeong Hyun Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


The ability to transform two-dimensional (2D) materials into a three-dimensional (3D) structure while preserving their unique inherent properties might offer great enticing opportunities in the development of diverse applications for next generation micro/nanodevices. Here, a self-assembly process is introduced for building free-standing 3D, micro/nanoscale, hollow, polyhedral structures configured with a few layers of graphene-based materials: graphene and graphene oxide. The 3D structures have been further modified with surface patterning, realized through the inclusion of metal patterns on their 3D surfaces. The 3D geometry leads to a nontrivial spatial distribution of strong electric fields (volumetric light confinement) induced by 3D plasmon hybridization on the surface of the graphene forming the 3D structures. Due to coupling in all directions, resulting in 3D plasmon hybridization, the 3D closed box graphene generates a highly confined electric field within as well as outside of the cubes. Moreover, since the uniform coupling reduces the decay of the field enhancement away from the surface, the confined electric field inside of the 3D structure shows two orders of magnitude higher than that of 2D graphene before transformation into the 3D structure. Therefore, these structures might be used for detection of target substances (not limited to only the graphene surfaces, but using the entire volume formed by the 3D graphene-based structure) in sensor applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1987-1994
Number of pages8
JournalNano letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 8 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This material is based upon work supported by a start-up fund at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, and an NSF CAREER Award (CMMI-1454293). A.N. and T.L. acknowledge financial support by DARPA grant award FA8650-16-2-7640. J.L., Q.S., and S.J.K. were supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under award ECCS-1124831. C.D. acknowledges support by the 3M Science and Technology Fellowship. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, a member of the NSF-funded Materials Research Facilities Network ( via the MRSEC program under award DMR-1420013. A portion of this work was also carried out in the Minnesota Nano Center, which receives partial support from the NSF through the NNCI program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Chemical Society.


  • 2D materials
  • 3D structures
  • graphene
  • plasmon
  • self-assembly

How much support was provided by MRSEC?

  • Shared

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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