Commercial garden and greenhouse chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam. (syn. Chrysanthemum xmorifolium Ramat.)] are facultative short-day plants for flower bud initiation, obligate short-day plants for flower bud development, and are categorized into short-day response groups. Flower initiation can be delayed by high night temperatures. Recent research has identified true day-neutral genotypes. The purpose of this investigation was to test environments for selecting genotypes that are both day-neutral and heat-delay insensitive. One greenhouse and 18 garden genotypes were selected. A series of environments were used to select for day-neutral genotypes and then differentiate between these genotypes for heat delay insensitivity: short days, long days/red light, long days/far red light and high temperatures, and natural day lengths under field conditions. Day-neutral selections from these environments were then grown in a fifth environment of long days/continuous far red and red light with high temperature. Data were collected on the number of days to first and third flower, long day leaf number, stem length, number of strap-shaped leaves subtending the terminal flower, internode lengths, number of nodes with axillary branching, and flower bud development of the first to the sixth flowers. Genotypes required 3 to 8 weeks for complete flower bud initiation/development. Flowering responses in the first four environments were highly significant for both the first and third flowers. Genotypes ranged from obligate short-day to day-neutral for the first six flowers. Three day-neutral genotypes were selected that differed significantly for all traits in the fifth environment; flower bud development with the first six flowers occurred with only one genotype, 83-267-3. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from h2 = 0.75 for number of nodes with axillary branching, h2 = 0.79 for long day leaf number and number of strap-shaped leaves, to h2 = 0.91 for stem length. An ideotype for day-neutral and heat-delay-insensitive garden chrysanthemums was developed for use in breeding programs.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science|
|State||Published - 2001|
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Far red light
- Long day leaf number
- Red light
- Short-day plants