Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia (SOD) is a developmental condition of the middle and posterior maxilla featuring dysplastic bone overgrowth, dental abnormalities and, occasionally, various homolateral cutaneous manifestations. Herein, we describe an individual with maxillary abnormality akin to SOD and associated ipsilateral segmental odontomandibular dysplasia. Also, the result of the evaluation of lesional mandibular gingival tissue for overgrowth-related gene variants is reported. An 8-year-old girl presented clinically with congenital maxillary and mandibular alveolar soft tissue enlargement in the area of the premolars. A panoramic radiograph revealed abnormal trabeculation essentially similar to SOD in the maxilla and mandible with congenitally missing maxillary and mandibular first and second premolars and mandibular canines. Diagnostic mandibular bone biopsy was performed and lesional mandibular gingival hyperplastic tissue was obtained for variant analysis of somatic overgrowth genes PIK3CA, AKT1, AKT3, GNAQ, GNA11, MTOR, PIK3R2. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) disclosed osseous abnormalities on the left side of the maxilla and mandible and very mild osseous expansion in the mandible. Histologically, abnormal bone exhibiting prominent reversal lines was present and associated with fibrocollagenous tissue. Genomic DNA analysis disclosed PIK3CAc.1571G>A; pArg524Lys which was seen at a low mosaic level in the blood, indicating a post-zygotic change. Although this case may be a unique disorder, by sharing features with SOD, one can suggest the possibility of mandibular involvement in SOD. The presence of a PIK3CA variant may support the hypothesis that these segmental disorders could be part of the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum.
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- Segmental odontognathic dysplasia
- Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia
- Somatic mutation