Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a versatile crop due to its multitude of uses as a high protein meal and vegetable oil. Soybean seed traits such as seed protein and oil concentration and seed size are important quantitative traits. The objective of this study was to identify representative protein, oil, and seed size quantitative trait loci (QTL) in soybean. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 131 F6-derived lines was created from two prominent ancestors of North American soybeans ('Essex' and 'Williams') and the RILs were grown in six environments. One hundred simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spaced throughout the genome were mapped in this population. There were a total of four protein, six oil, and seven seed size QTL found in this population. The QTL found in this study may assist breeders in marker-assisted selection (MAS) to retain current positive QTL in modern soybeans while simultaneously pyramiding additional QTL from new germplasm.