Screening Populations at Increased Risk of CKD: The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and the Public Health Problem

Joseph A. Vassalotti, Suying Li, Shu Cheng Chen, Allan J. Collins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


The epidemiological characteristics of the US end-stage renal disease population growth and increased costs in the late 1980s framed the public health agenda for the development of a community-based chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening program. Development of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) included 2 preliminary screening programs, the Computerized Assessment of Risk and Education and the KEEP pilot, which was organized around the African American Study of Kidney Diseases clinical centers. The current KEEP program, launched in August 2000, targets individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or a family history of diabetes or hypertension or CKD. The screening includes informed consent, health screening questionnaire, diagnostic panel, and physician consultation. Participants are followed up by telephone and mail. Of 100,000 KEEP participants screened, 28.7% have CKD and 6.7% self-reported CKD stages 1 to 5. Conversely, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 results show 13.1% CKD prevalence; 2.9% of women and 17.9% of men with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 self-report CKD. CKD prevalences in KEEP by stage are 3.1% for stage 1; 4.8%, stage 2; 19.7%, stage 3; and 1.1%, stages 4 and 5, confirming the ability of this targeted screening program to detect CKD early. In addition to identifying individuals at increased risk of kidney disease, KEEP's structured data collection provides an opportunity to advance knowledge about kidney disease and advance the CKD public health agenda.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S107-S114
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number3 SUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Mar 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Support: The KEEP is a program of the NKF Inc and is supported by Amgen, Abbott, Genzyme, Ortho Biotech Products LP, and Novartis, with additional support provided by Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Lifescan, Suplena, and OceanSpray Cranberries. Dr Vassalotti reports having received grant support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr Collins has received research support from Amgen.


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
  • detection
  • screening


Dive into the research topics of 'Screening Populations at Increased Risk of CKD: The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and the Public Health Problem'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this