Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are major health concerns in many industrialized societies. Both disorders appear to be increasing in prevalence, and both (particularly anorexia nervosa) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Genetic studies have suggested that there may be a genetic risk for the development of anorexia nervosa. Various treatment strategies have been advocated for these conditions. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly psychotherapy that incorporates cognitive-behavioral principles, appear to be useful. Recent biological studies on appetite and weight regulation are beginning to yield findings of clinical significance in the treatment of these disorders.