Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The accumulation of crystalline deposits, or scale, on polypropylene and copper tubes in a laminar flow of 40°C tap water is quantified. The experimental conditions reflect realistic conditions in solar water heating systems. The chemistry of the tap water is controlled to provide mildly supersaturated conditions at pH = 8. Supersaturation is 5 with respect to calcite and 8 with respect to hydroxyapatite. Sample tubes are analyzed for 1 to 8 weeks. The microstructure and composition of the scale are examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The scaling rates for polypropylene and copper tubes are 0.8 × 10 -10 and 1.7 × 10 -10 (mol Ca)/(m 2s), respectively. The oxidized copper surface is more susceptible to calcium phosphate scaling and this tendency results in the higher scaling rate for copper in tap water containing phosphate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.
Subtitle of host publicationCatch the Clean Energy Wave
Pages819-826
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Dec 1 2008
EventSOLAR 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, Including 37th ASES Annual Conference, 33rd National Passive Solar Conference and 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conference - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: May 3 2008May 8 2008

Publication series

NameAmerican Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave
Volume2

Other

OtherSOLAR 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, Including 37th ASES Annual Conference, 33rd National Passive Solar Conference and 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conference
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period5/3/085/8/08

Fingerprint

Potable water
Polypropylenes
Copper
Water
Ion chromatography
Supersaturation
Calcite
Calcium phosphate
Laminar flow
Hydroxyapatite
Phosphates
Deposits
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Crystalline materials
Heating
X ray diffraction
Microstructure
Scanning electron microscopy
Chemical analysis

Cite this

Wu, Z., Francis, L. F., & Davidson, J. H. (2008). Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water. In American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave (pp. 819-826). (American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave; Vol. 2).

Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water. / Wu, Zhen; Francis, Lorraine F.; Davidson, Jane H.

American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave. 2008. p. 819-826 (American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave; Vol. 2).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Wu, Z, Francis, LF & Davidson, JH 2008, Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water. in American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave. American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, vol. 2, pp. 819-826, SOLAR 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, Including 37th ASES Annual Conference, 33rd National Passive Solar Conference and 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conference, San Diego, CA, United States, 5/3/08.
Wu Z, Francis LF, Davidson JH. Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water. In American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave. 2008. p. 819-826. (American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave).
Wu, Zhen ; Francis, Lorraine F. ; Davidson, Jane H. / Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water. American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave. 2008. pp. 819-826 (American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave).
@inproceedings{9d652432d018485e8a80820e01b028c0,
title = "Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water",
abstract = "The accumulation of crystalline deposits, or scale, on polypropylene and copper tubes in a laminar flow of 40°C tap water is quantified. The experimental conditions reflect realistic conditions in solar water heating systems. The chemistry of the tap water is controlled to provide mildly supersaturated conditions at pH = 8. Supersaturation is 5 with respect to calcite and 8 with respect to hydroxyapatite. Sample tubes are analyzed for 1 to 8 weeks. The microstructure and composition of the scale are examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The scaling rates for polypropylene and copper tubes are 0.8 × 10 -10 and 1.7 × 10 -10 (mol Ca)/(m 2s), respectively. The oxidized copper surface is more susceptible to calcium phosphate scaling and this tendency results in the higher scaling rate for copper in tap water containing phosphate.",
author = "Zhen Wu and Francis, {Lorraine F.} and Davidson, {Jane H.}",
year = "2008",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781605604787",
series = "American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave",
pages = "819--826",
booktitle = "American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Scale formation on polypropylene and copper tubes during open-loop exposure to mildly supersaturated potable water

AU - Wu, Zhen

AU - Francis, Lorraine F.

AU - Davidson, Jane H.

PY - 2008/12/1

Y1 - 2008/12/1

N2 - The accumulation of crystalline deposits, or scale, on polypropylene and copper tubes in a laminar flow of 40°C tap water is quantified. The experimental conditions reflect realistic conditions in solar water heating systems. The chemistry of the tap water is controlled to provide mildly supersaturated conditions at pH = 8. Supersaturation is 5 with respect to calcite and 8 with respect to hydroxyapatite. Sample tubes are analyzed for 1 to 8 weeks. The microstructure and composition of the scale are examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The scaling rates for polypropylene and copper tubes are 0.8 × 10 -10 and 1.7 × 10 -10 (mol Ca)/(m 2s), respectively. The oxidized copper surface is more susceptible to calcium phosphate scaling and this tendency results in the higher scaling rate for copper in tap water containing phosphate.

AB - The accumulation of crystalline deposits, or scale, on polypropylene and copper tubes in a laminar flow of 40°C tap water is quantified. The experimental conditions reflect realistic conditions in solar water heating systems. The chemistry of the tap water is controlled to provide mildly supersaturated conditions at pH = 8. Supersaturation is 5 with respect to calcite and 8 with respect to hydroxyapatite. Sample tubes are analyzed for 1 to 8 weeks. The microstructure and composition of the scale are examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The scaling rates for polypropylene and copper tubes are 0.8 × 10 -10 and 1.7 × 10 -10 (mol Ca)/(m 2s), respectively. The oxidized copper surface is more susceptible to calcium phosphate scaling and this tendency results in the higher scaling rate for copper in tap water containing phosphate.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84868626620&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84868626620&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9781605604787

T3 - American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.: Catch the Clean Energy Wave

SP - 819

EP - 826

BT - American Solar Energy Society - SOLAR 2008, Including Proc. of 37th ASES Annual Conf., 33rd National Passive Solar Conf., 3rd Renewable Energy Policy and Marketing Conf.

ER -