Scale Development: Exploring Successful Political Outsiders’ Brand Image to Determine Reformist Dimensions

Gunaro Setiawan, Denni Arli, Peter Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This research attempts to develop the reformist dimensions based on the case of successful political outsiders. Literature suggest that reformers are those perceived to be successful in serving the citizens through their capabilities on making changes. To achieve this goal, this study explores the brand images of Indonesia’s political outsiders who have strong image of reformers which are Jokowi, Ahok and Risma and investigate how they are being perceived to be successful in serving the citizens. The present research, which consist of three studies, conduct exploratory factor analysis using sequential mixed methods. The first two studies utilize qualitative paradigms with interview and document analysis to determine reformist dimensions using thematic analysis. Following this, a survey was launched (n = 453) for a reliability and validity test. The qualitative studies have delineated the reformist characteristics into three dimensions: perceived qualities (three items), implemented programs (four items) and engagement style with citizens (three items). The dimensions have adequate factor analysis values and high reliability scores. Findings suggest that reformist attributes have several traits such as ‘anti-corruption’, ‘innovativeness’ and a high rate and unique voter engagement style. This research contributes to the development of political marketing theories on candidates’ reformist branding attributable to the phenomenon of the rise of political outsiders. It explores the interplay of leadership and political brand image from the cases of successful rise of political outsiders. The leadership aspects relevant to shape the brand image of a reformist from voters’ perspective are discussed based on findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-191
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Political Marketing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • brand image
  • political outsiders
  • reformist
  • scale development


Dive into the research topics of 'Scale Development: Exploring Successful Political Outsiders’ Brand Image to Determine Reformist Dimensions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this