SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Survey in Grocery Store Workers—Minnesota, 2020–2021

Madhura S. Vachon, Ryan T. Demmer, Stephanie Yendell, Kathryn J. Draeger, Timothy J. Beebe, Craig W. Hedberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Grocery workers were essential to the workforce and exempt from lockdown requirements as per Minnesota Executive Order 20–20. The risk of COVID-19 transmission in grocery settings is not well documented. This study aimed to determine which factors influenced seropositivity among grocery workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Minnesota grocery workers aged 18 and older using a convenience sample. Participants were recruited using a flyer disseminated electronically via e-mail, social media, and newspaper advertising. Participants were directed to an electronic survey and were asked to self-collect capillary blood for IgG antibody testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and adjusted for urbanicity, which confounded the relationship between number of job responsibilities in a store and seropositivity. Of 861 Minnesota grocery workers surveyed, 706 (82%) were tested as part of this study, of which 56 (7.9%) tested positive for IgG antibodies. Participants aged 65–74 years had the highest percent positivity. Having multiple job responsibilities in a store was significantly associated with seropositivity in our adjusted model (OR: 1.14 95% CI: 1.01–1.27). Workplace factors influenced seropositivity among Minnesota grocery workers. Future research will examine other potential factors (e.g., in-store preventive measures and access to PPE) that may contribute to increased seropositivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3501
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Minnesota Department of Health, grant: Minnesota SARS-CoV-2 Serology Studies. CON000000089530.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • COVID-19
  • Grocery workers
  • Serosurvey
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Minnesota/epidemiology
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19/epidemiology
  • Adolescent
  • Supermarkets
  • Aged

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Journal Article


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