Sixty-four cases of sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma represent the basis of this study. The patients are 51 men and 13 women between the ages of 42 and 79 years, who presented with symptoms of chest pain, cough, and weight loss. Diagnostic imaging showed the presence of diffuse pleural thickening with encasement of the lung parenchyma in all the cases. All patients had surgical resection via extrapleural pneumonectomy. By immunohistochemistry, all cases were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3; however, reactivity with other markers including keratin 5/6, calretinin, and D2-40 was seen in different proportions, whereas a few cases showed positive staining for GATA3, WT1, and p40. All tumors were negative for carcinomatous epitopes (carcinoembryonic antigen, CD15, and TTF1). Our findings show that even though the use of immunohistochemical stains plays an important role in the final interpretation, the best results are accomplished by a global interpretation of clinical, radiographical, and immunohistochemical findings. It is also important to highlight that it does not seem to be a single immunohistochemical stain that is pathognomonic of sarcomatoid mesothelioma and that some other stains that are commonly used for other tumors may also show positive staining in a small percentage of sarcomatoid mesotheliomas.
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